PLEASE NOTE: Players who are playing a base DO NOT stand on top of the base prior to the pitch. Players should stand in a position so they lessen the opportunity for the batting team to hit the ball out of the infield. Individuals who are covering a base, only go to their base or cover a base, when there is a possibility of a play being made at their base.
SOFTBALL STUDY GUIDE
History – Softball was first played in Chicago in 1887, indoors, with a 17-inch ball. The outdoor version of softball was played with a 12-inch ball in Minneapolis in 1895. Today there are many variations, including fast pitch, slow pitch, 16-inch slow pitch and coed softball.
Game- Softball is played on a diamond-shaped field; each team has nine players on the team at a time. The hitting team tries to hit the ball safely in fair territory to get on base and advance runners around the bases to score runs. A runner scores when they touch all four bases without being put out.
The team in the field tries to stop the other team from reaching base or scoring runs. When three outs are made the batting team and the fielding team switch sides. When both teams hit and play the field, that is called an inning. A softball game lasts seven innings, the team with the most runs at the end wins.
A foul ball occurs when... a. The ball lands outside the first or third baseline b. Ball lands fair and rolls foul in the infield.
A strike is when... a. The batter swings and misses. b. The batter hits a ball foul, that is not caught in the air by the defense.
The batter is out if... a. The batter fails to hit one of his/her three (3) swings into fair territory. b. Bats out of order. c. Hits a foul ball with two strikes. d. Any fair or foul fly ball that is caught.
A base runner is out if... a. The ball is hit fair, lands on the ground, is fielded and is thrown to first before the runner touches the base. b. They are tagged by a fielder in possession of the ball, while off a base. c. A hit ball hits a runner in fair territory. d. They do not return to their base after a fly ball is caught before the ball reaches the base they were at (tag-up). e. A runner leaves the baseline. f. There is a force out.
Force Out: An out that occurs when a runner must run to the next base and the fielders throw the ball to the base and touch the bag before the runner gets there, no tag of the runner needed.
Tag-Up: A base running play where the runner goes back to their base on a ball hit in the air, waits for the ball to be caught and then try to advance to the next base.
Fair ball: A ball that is batted between the 1st base line and the 3rd base line. Any ball hit between 1st and 3rd base is considered a fair ball.
Fly Ball: A ball that is batted into the air.
Foul Ball: A batted ball that lands into foul territory before passing 1st base or 3rd base. A fly ball that lands in foul territory, falling to the right of first base or to the left of third base, without being caught is a foul ball.
Over-Run (Run Past): There are only two (2) bases a base runner may over –run. 1st and Home.
Overthrow: Base runners advance one (1) base when a ball is overthrown and goes into foul territory. If a ball is overthrown in fair territory, between 1st and 3rd base, the base runner(s) may advance as many bases as he/she wishes, until the pitcher has the ball. When the pitcher has the ball, the play is over.
Proper Throwing Technique a. Point opposite shoulder at target. b. Step with opposite foot towards target. c. Keep throwing elbow up. d. Throw ball and follow through to target.
Proper Batting Technique a. Determine if you bat right handed or left handed. b. Right handed - Left hand on bottom of bat, right hand on top, hands together - Left side of body faces pitcher - Hands at ear level, just above back shoulder - Step with left foot, throw hands at the ball c. Left handed - Right hand on bottom of bat, left hand on top, hands together - Right side of body faces pitcher - Hands at ear level, just above back shoulder - Step with right foot, throw hands at ball